Apollo Noni provides you a with comprehensive look at research done on the noni plant (Morinda citrifolia) and showcases the history and botanical properites of noni.
Since the mid-nineties, noni has dramatically increased in popularity and has become one of the fastest growing nutritional supplements in the world. An entire industry has been born of this peculiar yet powerful plant.
Herbal and natural products have been used for centuries throughout the world in every culture. The scientific community has begun to show more and more interest in these products as the benefits become even more well known. Noni began to catch the eye of researchers worldwide early in this century, and one by one, studies have revealed the amazing qualities of the noni fruit.
Noni Research is a developing field of study, and it is hoped this site will both educate as well as encourage further research and understanding of the noni plant.
CURRENT NONI RESEARCH
» Dr. Ralph Heinicke and Afa Palu are working on the extraction and structure of Proxeronine and Xeronine.
» Dr. Anne Hirazumi Kim is doing follow-up work on noni and it’s effect on Lewis lung carcinoma cells.
» Dr. Mian-Ying Wang is working on the first human clinical trial involving Noni Juice at the University of Illinois, Rockford. This research is being funded with a grant from Morinda, Inc. The study is on the “Chemopreventative Effect of Noni Juice in Human Smokers.”
» Dr E. Furusawa at the University of Hawaii has researched the effect of Noni Juice and chemotherapy drugs on the sarcoma 180 line of cancer cells.
» Individuals have uncovered noni’s ability to inhibit the COX-II enzyme while allowing the COX-I enzyme to continue to function.
» Scientists are also investigating the antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasistic properties of Noni Juice.
» Dr. C. Ho at Rutgers University is researching new novel compounds in noni.
» Research is being done on the potent antioxidative properties of noni.
» Researchers are investigating the toxicological, allergenicity, and genotoxicity of noni.
RECENT NONI RESEARCH OF INTEREST
June 2003: Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vascular networks by juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni).
Hornick CA, Myers A, Sadowska-Krowicka H, Anthony CT, Woltering EA.
Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. email@example.com
Noni, the juice of the fruit from the Morinda citrifolia plant, has been used for centuries as a medicinal agent. We tested the effects of noni juice in a three-dimensional fibrin clot matrix model using human placental vein and human breast tumor explants as sources for angiogenic vessel development. Noni in concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) or greater was highly effective in inhibiting the initiation of new vessel sprouts from placental vein explants, compared with initiation in control explants in media supplemented with an equivalent amount of saline. These concentrations of noni were also effective in reducing the growth rate and proliferation of newly developing capillary sprouts. When used at a concentration of 10% in growth media, noni was able to induce vessel degeneration and apoptosis in wells with established capillary networks within a few days of its application. We also found that 10% noni juice in media was an effective inhibitor of capillary initiation in explants from human breast tumors. In tumor explants which did show capillary sprouting, the vessels rapidly degenerated (2-3 days) in those exposed to media supplemented with 10% noni.
PMID: 14739620 [PubMed – in process]
December 17, 2003: Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice.
Furusawa E, Hirazumi A, Story S, Jensen J.
Department of Pharmacology, John Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhibitors of macrophages (2-chloroadenosine), T cells (cyclosporine) or natural killer (NK) cells (anti-asialo GM1 antibody). Noni-ppt showed synergistic or additive beneficial effects when combined with a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin-C, bleomycin, etoposide, 5- fl uorouracil, vincristine or camptothecin. It was not beneficial when combined with paclitaxel, cytosine arabinoside, or immunosuppressive anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or 6-thioguanine. Noni-ppt also demonstrated beneficial effects when combined with the Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma, but its activity was abolished when combined with Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 or interleukin-10, thereby suggesting that Noni-ppt induces a Th1 dominant immune status in vivo. The combination of Noni-ppt with imexon, a synthetic immunomodulator, also demonstrated beneficial effects, but not when combined with the MVE-2 copolymer, a high molecular weight immunomodulator. It was also not effective when combined with interleukin-2 or interleukin-12. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 14669249 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
The Morinda, Inc. lab tested Noni Juice for antioxidant activity, using a standard test method. They also tested samples of grape seed extract, pycnogenol, and vitamin C using the same method. Grape seed extract and pycnogenol are popular antioxidant dietary supplements. Vitamin C is well known as an antioxidant also, especially in the scientific arena. The results concluded that Noni Juice exhibited better antioxidant activity than the others did.
Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs, called non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, exert their effects by suppressing a class of enzymes called cylcooxygenases (COX). Two groups of COX are of interest, COX-I and COX-II. COX-I is a constitutive enzyme, meaning that it is working all the time and is necessary for the proper maintenance of the body. COX-II is an induced enzyme, meaning it turns on when the proper signal is given. These enzymes make various prostaglandins. When you get an injury that results in swelling and causes pain, you can take aspirin, which will suppress the action of both COX-I and COX-II. This will result in some relief, but at the cost of suppressing an enzyme that you do not want to suppress, COX-I, which may cause gastric irritation in some people.
Several new drugs have been developed which target COX-II more than COX-I. The reason for this is that they are safer and easier on the stomach. These are also more expensive than the more common NSAIDs. Noni Juice has also been tested to see if it can suppress the COX system. The results were that Noni Juice selectively inhibited COX-II more than COX-I.
Some of the best Morinda citrifolia research was conducted at the University of Hawaii by Dr. Anne Hirazumi Kim. She demonstrated that noni fruit juice has an anti-tumor effect in mice against a human tumor cell line, Lewis lung carcinoma. She discovered that the possible mechanism for this anti-tumor effect was through the immune system. Noni fruit juice stimulated the branch of the immune system that destroyed tumor cells. She further used isolated whole human blood to determine if human immune cells would likewise be stimulated. In her laboratory experiments, the immune cells were stimulated.
Dr. Mian-Ying Wang:
Dr. Wang, of the University of Illinois, had discovered that Noni Juice can reduce the amount of DNA damage in animals that can occur due to powerful chemical mutagens (chemicals that break the DNA and cause mutations). She received approval from the university to expand her research into a human clinical trial, using heavy smokers as the test group. Cigarette smoke contains chemicals trial, using heavy smokers as the test group. Cigarette smoke contains chemicals that cause DNA damage and consequently may increase the risk for developing cancer. Dr. Wang’s initial findings in these people are positive.
Dr. Ralph Heinicke:
Dr. Heinicke has patents for Xeronine. He has stated that noni fruit contains a precursor for Xeronine, called Proxeronine. Proxeronine is converted to Xeronine in the body. Xeronine’s physiological effect is in the modification of the structure of proteins. Thus Xeronine can have a wide range of effects. When a protein, such as an enzyme or cellular transporter, is not in the appropriate structure, it will not work properly. Xeronine will interact with the protein and cause its to fold into its proper conformation (shape). Thus the result is a properly functioning protein. Proteins form many parts of the cell. Whenever a problem arises in the cell due to a protein structural problem, Xeronine will be helpful.
Dr. Neil Solomon’s Study:
Dr. Solomon has organized a study which has grown to include 75 health professionals and over 15,000 patients. In his study, doctors and/or patients are to drink Noni Juice for a 7-month period, with a loading serving of 4 oz. the 1st month, a therapeutic serving of 3 oz. for the following 5 months, and a maintenance/prevention serving of 2 oz. the 7th month (half these amounts for children).
In the final analysis, the overall average of those who either objectively or subjectively experienced benefit was an unheard of 75%. Dr. Solomon goes on to say that “the majority of Noni users who did not get optimal results failed to do so because they took a lesser dose and/or took it a lesser amount of time than recommended.”
Dr. Solomon also notes that “My survey did show that 95% of those who reported that Noni helped them in some way experienced those results within three months of starting Noni.”